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   2004| January-March  | Volume 48 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 29, 2010

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A study on arsenical dermatosis in rural community of West Bengal
NK Mandal, R Biswas
January-March 2004, 48(1):30-33
The spatial distribution of chronic arsenicosis due to consumption of arsenic contaminated tube well water in different districts of West Bengal was gradually unfolding since 1983. Arsenical dermatosis was found to be the commonest and earliest manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity. This study was conduct in Baruipur block of South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. Total 313 people selected from three randomly selected villages with reported arsenic contamination in tube well water and 342 people living three randomly selected villages without such evidence of contamination were examined as control population. 5.97% of exposed population and 2.05% of unexposed population showed melanosis (p<0.0 1). Moreover, 5.11% of exposed population and 0.88% of unexposed population showed keratosis (p<0.01). The prevalence of dermatosis among exposed population was also seen to have increased with increasing age, from 7.19% in 0-19 year age group to 37.50% in above 40 year group (p<0.001). Prevalence was also found to be more with increase in level of contamination. The prevalence rate of dermatosis among unexposed group was 2.92%. But age adjusted prevalence rate among exposed group was 19.08% at arsenic contamination level of 0.487 ppm. Mean arsenic concentration in nail and hair samples of exposed group was also found higher than the prescribed limit.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1,194 200 5
Community utilisation of subcentres in primary health care - An analysis of determinants in Kerala
VM Nair, KR Thankappan, RS Vasan, PS Sarma
January-March 2004, 48(1):17-20
The determinants of utilisation of subcentre services in a random sample of 247 subcentres from three out of 14 districts of Kerala were investigated. Physical verification of the facilities was done in a subset of 90 subcentres and household surveys of 750 households were performed in the service areas of those subcentres. About 30 per cent of the beneficiaries utilised services of the subcentres during the reference period. The relationship of selected predictor variables on utilisation of the services was found out. The district in which a subcentre was physically present was found to be the most important correlate of its utilisation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  571 346 2
Sero surveillance of leptospirosis among sewer workers in pune
AN Ambekar, RS Bharadwaj, SA Joshi, AS Kagal, AM Bal
January-March 2004, 48(1):27-29
Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease affecting people coming in contact with animals and their discharges. The occurrence of infection in ones workplaces is linked to the environment to which the worker is exposed and the adaptability of the organism in that working environment. Rodents usually abound in underground sewers and are carriers of leptospira. The urine of rodents and other animals present in that area is likely to contaminate these sewers. Leptospira are excreted in the urine of infected animals. Thus sewer workers are at a potential risk of leptospirosis. The prevalence of leptospirosis in these workers could thus indirectly predict the presence of the disease in animals in a particular geographical niche. Total seventy-eight sewer workers from 5 different municipal wards in Pune were examined to find out the evidence of past infection with leptospira using microagglutination test (MAT). The prevalence rate was found to be 16.6%. The serovars to which antibodies were detected include autumnalis (38.4%), pyrogenes (23.0%), canicola (15.3%) and Pomona (15.3%). Evidence of leptospiral infection was found to be maximum in sewer workers in the areas of the city that were infested with rodents and stray animals.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  564 305 4
Status of maternal and new born care at first referral units in the state of West Bengal
AB Biswas, S Nandy, RN Sinha, DK Das, RN Roy, S Datta
January-March 2004, 48(1):21-26
A study was conducted in 12 First Referral Units (FRUs), selected through multistage sampling, from 6 districts of West Bengal. Infrastructure facilities, record keeping, referral system and MCH indicators related to newborn care were documented. Data was collected by review of records, interview and observation using a pre-designed proforma. Inadequate infrastructure facilities (e.g. no sanctioned posts of specialists, no blood bank at rural hospitals declared as First Referral Units etc.); poor utilization of equipment like neonatal resuscitation sets, radiant warmer etc, lack of training of the service providers were evident. Records/registers were available but incomplete. Referral system was found to be almost nonexistent. Most of the deliveries (86.1%) were normal delivery. Deliveries (87.7%) and immediate neonatal resuscitation (94.9%) were done mostly by nursing personnel. Institution based maternal, perinatal and early neonatal mortality rates were found to be 5.6, 62.4 and 25.2 per 1000 live births respectively. Eclampsia (48.9%), hemorrhage (17.7%), puerperal sepsis (7.1%) were reported to be major causes of maternal mortality. Common causes of early neonatal mortality were birth asphyxia (54.3%), sepsis (14.6%) and prematurity/LBW (12.4%).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  555 262 4
Monitoring the size of the leprosy problem: Which epidemiological indicators should we use?
Wim H Van Brakel, Peter Lever, Pieter Feenstra
January-March 2004, 48(1):5-16
The purpose of the study was to discuss the interpretation of epidemiological trends in leprosy, using currently available indicators. A number of leprosy-endemic countries and regions were chosen for which epidemiological data have been published for a period of at least 15 years. Using these examples, relative merit of the registered prevalence rate, the case detection rate, the children proportion among new cases and proportion of new cases with grade 2 disability will examined for interpreting the leprosy situation in these countries. Considerable drop of the registered prevalence rates (PR) were evident in all endemic countries. However, this decline was due largely to shortening of treatment and 'cleaning' of leprosy registers and has not been reflected in the annual case detection rates (CDR), except in a few countries. The proportion of new cases with grade 2 impairment had decreased substantially, which indicates earlier case finding. However, the proportion of children among new cases did not change much in the past decade. It is indicate that transmission is still continuing. We reiterate the conclusion of the ILA Technical Forum that the (annual) case detection rate is the most appropriate indicator for monitoring of leprosy situation in a given country or area. Two additional indicators that helped to interpret the CDR were the proportion of new cases with grade 2 impairments, reflecting the delay between occurrence and diagnosis of the disease, and the proportion of children among new cases, which is used as a proxy indicator for recent transmission.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  512 212 4
Injection safety and its impact in India: A literature analysis
Amardeep Thind
January-March 2004, 48(1):34-36
Unsafe injection practices have been implicated in the worldwide spread of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or any parasitic disease with a blood phase, such as malaria, filaria and syphilis. Review of injection safety in India also revealed that use of injection is often inappropriate, injections are administered with unreliable safety measures. Studies in India have documented the association of injection use and spread of hepatitis C and kala-azar also. Some measures to address the issue are also discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  444 224 -
Public health: Is it missing in the health sector reforms agenda?
Ranadeb Biswas
January-March 2004, 48(1):3-4
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  234 103 -