Indian Journal of Public Health

: 2010  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 169--170

Lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh paper mill colony, Rajahmundry, after nine rounds of MDA program

Ashok Kumar Mukhopadhyay 
 National Center for Disease Control, Govt. of India, Weavers Colony, Rajahmundry - 5, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashok Kumar Mukhopadhyay
National Center for Disease Control, Govt. of India, Weavers Colony, Rajahmundry - 5, Andhra Pradesh

How to cite this article:
Mukhopadhyay AK. Lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh paper mill colony, Rajahmundry, after nine rounds of MDA program.Indian J Public Health 2010;54:169-170

How to cite this URL:
Mukhopadhyay AK. Lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh paper mill colony, Rajahmundry, after nine rounds of MDA program. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Aug 9 ];54:169-170
Available from:

Full Text


Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious socioeconomic and public health problem due to the morbidity, disability, social stigma and considerable economic loss caused by the disease. In order to eliminate transmission of the disease and to prevent disability due to LF by the year 2015, 16 districts of Andhra Pradesh (AP) are under Mass Drug Administration (MDA) program, covering a population of 54 million with annual single dose of diethyl carbamazine citrate (DEC) tablets orally. [1] Rajahmundry town of AP is one of the worst LF affected areas and has been under MDA program since 1999, covering a total nine rounds of MDA program till 2008. Residential colonies maintained by industries like Andhra Pradesh Paper Mill (APPM), which is situated in the heart of Rajahmundry town, often remain separated from government health program facilities, especially for National Filaria and Malaria Control Program, and are being managed by their own health infrastructure. A survey was, therefore, initiated to note the magnitude of LF in 2009 in APPM colony.

APPM is one of the major industries situated in the northwestern part of Rajahmundry town, having two residential colonies totally protected and isolated from the main town. Quarters of "Officers' Colony" are well-furnished, brick built, three-storey buildings with 165 dwelling units having a population of 447, where doors and windows of all residential quarters are fitted with mosquito proof wire mesh. Drainage system inside the colony is of underground type. Quarters inside "Staff Colony" are also furnished and brick built. There are 496 dwelling units with a population of 1488. Drainage system in the colony is of open type without any mosquito proof netting on doors and windows of quarters.

Night blood and disease survey in the two APPM colonies were conducted between May and July 2009, between 20:30 and 23:00 hours. About 20 mm of peripheral blood was drawn on clean glass slides [1] randomly from each individual by finger prick method. Slides were brought to the laboratory, stained in Giemsa's stain and examined under the microscope for the presence of microfilaria (mf). The persons were also examined for lymphedema/hydrocele cases, if any.

Adult and larvae of culicine mosquitoes were collected from human dwellings and water-logged drains and reservoirs between 06:00 and 08:00 hours, following standard entomological techniques, [2],[3] to note the density of adult and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.

Two hundred and seventeen out of 447 residents (48.5%) of Officers' Colony of APPM were checked and the mf rate was noted as zero [Table 1]. However, lymphedema was found among seven elderly persons (disease rate 3.22%), which varied with our past findings of 2007. [4],[5] Three hundred and twenty-one out of 1488 (21.5%) persons were checked in the Staff Colony where disease and mf rates were noted to be 6.54 and 0.62%, respectively. In a study in Rajahmundry town in 2007, [4] the mf rate was noted to be 0.73%. DEC consumption in 2008 was 2.76 and 21.49% in Officers' Colony and Staff Colony, respectively, in the present study. In a recent survey in 2007, [5] DEC compliance and consumption rate in East Godavari district was observed to be 94.57 and 76.06%, respectively, which did not corroborate with our present findings. The same study [5] also found use of mosquito net and repellant by 10.5 and 33.5% population, respectively, which was only 1.87 and 46.72%, respectively, in the Staff Colony as revealed in the present study.{Table 1}

Only 2.76% residents of the Officers' Colony actually consumed DEC tablets in MDA program in 2008 compared to 21.49% of the Staff Colony, but none were found positive with mf infection in blood. Man-mosquito contact in the Officers' Colony was found to be very low (MHD, i.e. Man Hour Density of C. quinquefasciatus was only 1.5) due to the reason that all doors and windows of houses were fitted with wire mesh to prevent the entry of insects, all houses had underground drainage and 64.5% residents had used mosquito repellants during night. This was one of the reasons of zero mf rate in APPM Officers' Colony.

Therefore, apart from the ongoing MDA program, more attention is needed from the health authorities to bring down man-mosquito contact by improving the draining system, preferably underground drainage system, with the help of Public Works Department. Motivation of common people toward personal protection by using bed nets, repellants, etc. may give extra dividend to successfully eliminate LF from India.


1Govt of India. Operational guidelines on elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi: Govt of India; 2004. p. 10.
2Shiv Lal, Kaul SM, Raina VK, Thapar BR. Operational Guidelines on entomological aspects of malaria and dengue. National Malaria Eradication Programme (NVBDCP) Directorate General of Health Services, Govt. of India; 1998. p. 37-48.
3Hati AK, Medical Entomology. Kolkata: Allied Book Agency; 1979. p. 65-77.
4Mukhopadhyay AK, Patnaik SK. Effect of Mass Drug Administration Programme on microfilaria carriers in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. J Vector Borne Dis 2007;44:275-7.
5Mukhopadhyay AK, Patnaik SK, Satya Babu P, Rao KN. Knowledge on Lymphatic Filariasis and Mass Drug Administration (MDA) Programme in filaria endemic districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Vector Borne Dis 2008;45:73-5.