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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 80-86

Glycemic control and its determinants among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ernakulam district, Kerala


1 Senior Resident, Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India
3 Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India
4 Former Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Teena Mary Joy
Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijph.ijph_1104_22

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Background: Diabetes is a public health problem of colossal proportions. The National Family Health Survey 5 (2019–2020) has found high blood sugar levels among 13.5% of women and 15.6% of men in India. The high morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus are due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia resulting in micro- and macrovascular changes affecting multiple organs in the body. The objectives of this study were to estimate glycemic control and its determinants among type 2 diabetics in the Ernakulam district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 364 type 2 diabetics who had the disease for at least 5 years duration in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. Probability proportional to size cluster sampling technique was adopted. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and behavioral profiles. Participants' HbA1c levels were assessed to determine glycemic control. Results: The proportion of people with good glycemic control was 21.4%. Determinants such as female gender adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.36, P = 0.005), body mass index >23 kg/m2 (aOR = 2.71, P = 0.002), combined drug treatment with Oral Hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) and insulin (aOR = 3.76, P = 0.004), and poor compliance with medications (aOR = 1.93, P = 0.030) were found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusions: Poor compliance with medications and unhealthy lifestyle choices has resulted in a high proportion of diabetics with poor glycemic control in the district. Women are particularly more vulnerable to uncontrolled hyperglycemia than males. Type 2 diabetes mellitus people should be encouraged to maintain strict glycemic control, which is an important measure for secondary prevention of complications.


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