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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 14-17

An outbreak investigation of acute Diarrheal Disease, Nagpur District, Maharashtra, India

1 India Epidemic Intelligence Services (EIS) Officer, Delhi, India
2 Joint Director, Division of Epidemiology, National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi, India
3 Public Health Specialist, US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Delhi, India
4 Resident Advisor, US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Prasoon Sheoran
Directorate of Health and Family Welfare, Danda Lakhond, Dehradun - 248 001, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_962_20

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Background: Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) accounts for 12 million cases and 1216 deaths annually in India. On July 13, 2016, an ADD outbreak was reported from Sawargaon village from Nagpur district, Maharashtra. Objective: The outbreak was investigated to describe the epidemiology and suggest control and preventive measures. Methods: A case was defined as a person experiencing at least one loose stool in Sawargaon village between July 9, 2016, and July 31, 2016. We searched for cases by enhanced passive surveillance. We collected stool samples for bacterial culture and tested water from multiple water sources for fecal coliforms. We also reviewed sanitary practices and rainfall data. Results: A total of 889 cases were identified, with 51% female, 280 hospitalizations (31%), and two deaths. The median age was 27 years (range 6 months to 90 years). Cases started on July 9, a week after heavy rains. District authorities started chlorination of water sources on July 13 and cases declined soon after. Two of nine stool samples tested positive for Vibrio cholera O1 serogroup. Of the 18 water samples collected, 16 (88%) samples from multiple sources, including wells, hand pumps, and taps, were positive for fecal coliforms. Of 1,885 households in the village, 450 (24%) households had no toilets and open defecation was commonly observed in the nearby river bed. Conclusions: This ADD outbreak was likely associated with drinking contaminated groundwater, which probably occurred after heavy rainfall in an area of open defecation. We recommended providing chlorinated drinking water, promoting safe sanitation practices, including building more public and private toilets, and enhancing diagnostic laboratory capacity.

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