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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 302-306  

Influencing factors of community empowerment for domestic waste prevention and management among people living in river basin: A scoping review


Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, West Java Indonesia, Asia, Indonesia

Date of Submission16-Oct-2020
Date of Decision18-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance12-Aug-2021
Date of Web Publication22-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Neti Juniarti
Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM. 21 Jatinangor, Kab. Sumedang, Jawa Barat
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_1281_20

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   Abstract 


Citarum River in West Java, Indonesia, is the most polluted river in the world which pollutes the ocean. This is caused by lack of community empowerment for domestic waste prevention and management. This study aimed to identify factors influencing community empowerment for domestic waste prevention and management, as well as the intervention for improvement. A scoping review was conducted using databases such as Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and PubMed with keywords such as community empowerment, domestic waste management, waste prevention, and healthy living, published from 2009 to 2019. Initially, a total of 57,339 articles were retrieved, and with inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight articles were included for this review. Based on the results, three influencing factors were found at the individual, community, and government level. Regarding the intervention, promoting people and participatory engagement were the most effective ways to empower people in promoting healthy and clean behavior. Further research is needed to improve community empowerment for waste management among people living in the river basin to reduce pollution from domestic waste.

Keywords: Community empowerment, waste management, waste prevention


How to cite this article:
Juniarti N, Nurapipah M, Yani DI, Sari CW. Influencing factors of community empowerment for domestic waste prevention and management among people living in river basin: A scoping review. Indian J Public Health 2021;65:302-6

How to cite this URL:
Juniarti N, Nurapipah M, Yani DI, Sari CW. Influencing factors of community empowerment for domestic waste prevention and management among people living in river basin: A scoping review. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 2];65:302-6. Available from: https://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2021/65/3/302/326379




   Introduction Top


Polluted rivers have caused many health problems in various countries, including in Indonesia. One of the major rivers in Indonesia is Citarum River. Citarum River is the largest and longest river in West Java province, which has an important role for the community living in the watershed or catchment area. Its headwaters or tributaries are on Gunung Wayang in Bandung Regency and flow about 297 km downstream in Karawang Regency. Furthermore, the river basin activities include settlements with a population of 10 million, agriculture/plantations, industry, fisheries, and power plants.[1]

The river plays an important role besides being the source of drinking water for residents around the watershed. It is the first water supplier for electricity generation, fisheries on farmland, and plantations as well as industrial activities. However, in the last 20 years, environmental conditions together with water quality of Citarum River have deteriorated, and during this period, the population, settlements, as well as industrial activities along the river developed rapidly.[2]

Management of Citarum River Basin includes its hydrological boundaries, namely small river basins on the east and west as well as the river tributaries. The beneficiaries of these water resources include those around the river area and also residents of Jakarta that use river water through the West Tarum Canal. Meanwhile, government's program in the effort to restore the longest river in West Java is the “Citarum Harum” (Nice Smell Citarum) program. The concepts and ideas are more integrated because it is directly under the Central Government Control through the Coordinating Ministry and Maritime Affairs.[1]

According to the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency (BPS), at least 45 million residents of West Java, up to 15 million residents were dependent on the Citarum River. However, due to human behavior that does not preserve the river, the water condition is not suitable for use. Furthermore, according to Blacksmith Institute,[3] a nonprofit organization engaged in the environmental field, there are two rivers in Indonesia which are on the list of the dirtiest and polluted rivers in the world, one of which is Citarum River.

While Citarum River is able to advance the community's economy and improve the social welfare, West Java people in the watershed are not fully aware of the rivers' better potential; thus, Citarum River is left damaged and polluted.[3] Furthermore, according to the Regional Environmental Management Agency (BPLHD) of West Java Province, there are several pollution problems in Citarum River that have not been resolved. These include pollution of industrial and livestock/agriculture wastes, household domestic wastes, changes in household waste, land use as well as critical land, changes in community behavior, damaged/reduced water resources, and law enforcement compliance.

The problem of pollution in the river has not been completely resolved. This pollution makes the river unfit for use by the surrounding community. The pollution also has a negative impact on the people living along the river. Meanwhile, the negative impact on the community is due to the dirty water which causes some diseases for people using it. Furthermore, the health problems arising from these pollutions are the development of various disease vectors, such as mollusks and insects that cause different diseases, which include skin diseases, dengue fever, and diarrhea also known as waterborne disease.[3]

Waterborne disease is a disease transmitted to humans due to contamination in the form of microorganisms or substances in water. The impacts of waterborne diseases occur in humans and also have an impact on the environment where the people live. Meanwhile, contamination in humans is through drinking, bathing, washing, preparing, or eating food that has been contaminated from the polluted water or during food preparation process.[4]

The UNICEF data in 2014 stated that up to 44.5% of Indonesian total populations still do not have access to proper disposal of feces and 24% or 63 million Indonesians still practiced open defecation, thus contaminating the river. The UNICEF also stated that poor sanitation and hygiene behaviors, together with drinking unsafe water, contributed to 88% of child deaths due to diarrhea worldwide.[5]

The burden of domestic and agricultural waste pollution in the river is very high; therefore, several technical and nontechnical management (regulations and institutions) approaches are taken to reduce the water quality and quantity degradation.[6] Households were required to use septic tanks by the government. However, some communities were not able to build their own septic tanks due to economic reason. Therefore, the government conducted domestic wastewater treatment in each densely populated urban area to minimize waste burden entering the Citarum River and its tributaries.[6]

Other efforts that have been done by the government were saving forests, land, and water through instructions from the president through reforestation together with the national partnerships for the movement to save water and the river. This movement certainly needs an important role from the river basin surrounding community, one of which is through the community empowerment efforts.

Research conducted by Hafizi et al.[7] on community empowerment pattern in the upstream sub-basin of the MIU in Central Sulawesi stated that community empowerment pattern was carried out to increase independence and empower the community for making a change that aimed at improving the region potential quality. Furthermore, the community empowerment surrounding the river areas was conducted using efficient resource-based business management, utilization and rehabilitation to maintain river sustainability. In addition, the empowerment also applied preservation of cultural values and local wisdom to provide community access to the river basin management.[7]

The empowerment activities are carried out by providing guidance, training, assistance, as well as socialization to the community in an effort to form a river care group through technical and nontechnical activities, respectively. Furthermore, empowerment activities' benefits are to meet the need for guidance in development, produce increased institutional capacity in managing institutions singly or collectively, and encourage strength in dealing and interacting with other parties in improving healthy lifestyles of communities around river areas. Currently, there are not many literatures that describe influencing factors for community empowerment, particularly in the area of waste prevention and waste management around river basin. Hence, the review question was “what are the factors influencing community empowerment for domestic waste prevention and management respectively?” This study aims to map quickly key concepts that underlie the research area as well as main basis and evidence that already exists from previous studies. In addition, this review also aimed to find gaps from previous studies to be filled in subsequent studies.


   Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted by making a review protocol in accordance with Joanna Briggs Institute guideline for systematic review. A three-step search strategy was utilized which aimed to find published studies. An initial limited search of CINAHL database was undertaken to identify keywords contained in the title, abstract, and the index terms of the articles. Furthermore, a second search using all identified keywords and index terms was undertaken across all included databases. Third, the reference list of all identified reports and articles is searched for additional studies. The search method uses several electronic databases such as Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and PubMed. The keywords used to obtain the articles were community empowerment, domestic waste management and prevention, as well as healthy living. A total of 57,339 articles retrieved; the inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed research articles, full text using English and Indonesian language, had titles together with contents that were relevant to the research question, publication years from 2009 to 2019, and have a minimal quasi experiment research design. The exclusion criteria included articles without good structure (consisting of abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussions, implications, and references), review articles, and articles with no answer to research questions. However, quantitative data were extracted from papers included in the review using standardized data extraction tool from Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction form for experimental or observational studies. In addition, the data extracted included specific details about the interventions, populations, study methods, as well as significant outcomes to the review question and specific objectives.

Quantitative research papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity before inclusion. Any disagreements that arose between the reviewers were resolved through discussion or by a third reviewer.

The selection and final inclusion of articles in the review is in the PRISM flowchart [Figure 1].
Figure 1: PRISM flowchart showing the selection of articles in the review.

Click here to view



   Results Top


Study demographics

A total of 36 articled and 1 duplicate article were obtained with the titles relevant to the research question. However, after sorting, 28 articles were excluded leaving only eight that were then read and summarized. Among the eight articles, three were from developed countries and others from developing countries [Table 1]. This showed that community empowerment research mostly come from developing countries
Table 1: Study Characteristics

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The study design varied across the paper using quantitative, qualitative, and mix method design, respectively [Table 1]. This showed that researchers use various study designs including mixed method that combines qualitative and quantitative approach.

Influencing factors of community empowerment

The results showed that there are factors at three levels which include individual, community, and governmental, respectively, while interventions by promoting healthy and clean behavior and participatory engagement were the most effective way to empower people [Table 2].
Table 2: Influencing Factors of Community Empowerment

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Intervention to improve community empowerment for waste prevention and management

The intervention to improve community empowerment for waste prevention and management is presented in [Table 3], which includes promoting people, participatory hygiene, as well as sanitation transformation, integrated primary healthcare together with community empowerment, and eco-health.
Table 3: Intervention to Improve Community Empowerment

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[Table 3] shows that the interventions to improve community empowerment were still limited to address the community factors such as promoting healthy behavior in people, participatory transformation, integrated primary healthcare, and ecohealth, respectively. This review found that there are gaps in intervention to address individual and governmental factors.


   Discussion Top


Overall findings showed that most interventions were to improve community empowerment and address the community factors. The community factors are needed to empower the community to influence others in following a new changed pattern and change the inappropriate mindset in controlling solid waste to promote effectiveness in the city development. Furthermore, the community also requires abilities together with knowledge to increase enthusiasm in waste management. Minn et al.[8] used the mix methods through in-depth interviews, group discussions, organizations as well as community gatherings, structured questionnaires, and observations. Questionnaires related to awareness and self-esteem together with structured self-efficacy were taken randomly from all respondents to complete pre- and post-test questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with 20 informants who include local officials, regional leaders, the elderly, and women; discussion groups are carried out by 60 respondents with different objects. The results showed that the method was very effective in managing solid waste control in the city.

A cross-sectional study with observational analytic research design by Adnani et al.,[9] who used questionnaires to survey the market traders community regarding their clean and healthy lifestyles, subjective norms, as well as their health habits. The results showed that the behaviors influence the evaluation of a clean and healthy lifestyle. Moreover, intention of the subjects influenced health promotion behavior related to clean and healthy lifestyle in the market. In addition, behaviors in relation to clean and healthy lifestyles that influence habits in community around the market are needed.

One of the methods used to improve environmental quality is through Participatory, Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) using seven steps. The seven steps of PHAST consist of (1) identifying the problem, (2) analyzing the problem, (3) planning solutions, (4) carefully choosing options, (5) planning for new facilities and behavior change, (6) monitoring and evaluation plan, and (7) participatory evaluating of the results. An experimental study, which used the PHAST steps in Bogor, Indonesia, with duration 3 h a week for 8 consecutive weeks, has shown that there were positive changes of homemaker volunteers' lifestyle, importantly in engaging the wider community to perform the clean and healthy behaviors. This experiment was able to change people's behavior, especially in protecting the environment and waste management carried out by homemakers in the surrounding area. This empowerment was able to improve the environmental quality around the river basin through empowering the homemakers who were familiar with the environment as well as waste management.[11][14]




   Conclusion Top


The results showed that there are three level factors that include individual, community, and governmental. Regarding the intervention, promoting people and participatory engagement were the most effective way to empower people in promoting healthy and clean behavior. However, there are gaps in interventions to address individual and governmental factors, respectively. Hence, further research is needed to improve individual as well as governmental factors to the community empowerment for people living in the river basin.

Financial support and sponsorship

This study was funded by Universitas Padjadjaran Research Grants.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Cita Citarum. Fakta Citarum [Indonesian]; 2014. Available from: http://citarum.org/tentang-kami/fakta-citarum.html. [Last accessed on 2019 Apr 07].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Widyasari W. Faktor Determinan Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Gerakan Citarum Bestari Terhadap Perilaku Masyarakat Bersih Lingkungan (Study Deskriptif Di Desa Sangkanhurip Kecamatan Katapang Kabupaten Bandung). Jurnal Pendidikan Luar Sekolah 2017;13:64-72  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Blacksmith Institute. The Worlds' Worst 2013: The Top Ten Toxic Threats, Clean-up Progress, and on-Going Challenges. New York City: Lacksmith Institute Green Cross; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Triyono A. Pemberdayaan masyarakat melalui community development program Posdaya (pos pemberdayaan keluarga) PT. Holcim Indonesia Tbk Pabrik Cilacap. Publikasi Ilmiah UMS 2014 : 111-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hasanah L. Partipasi masyarakat dalam keberlanjutan Program (Pamsimas) penyediaan air Bersih Dan sanitasi berbasis masyarakat di desa Aeng Dake kecamatan Bluto Tahun 2019. Bul Keslingmas 2019;38:119-23.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Salim H. Beban pencemaran limbah domestik dan pertanian di DAS Citarum hulu. Environ Technol J 2002;3:107-11.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Hafizi MZ, Golar G, Sudhartono AJ. Pola Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Di Hulu Sub Daerah Aliran Sungai Miu (Kasus Penerapan Program SCBFWM di Desa Winatu Kecamatan Kulawi Kabupaten Sigi Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah). Jurnal Warta Rima 2016; 4 : 89-96.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Minn Z, Srisontisuk S, Laohasiriwong W. Promoting people's participation in solid waste management in Myanmar. Res J Environ Sci 2010;4:209-22.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Adnani H, Subiyanto AA, Hanim D, Sulaeman ES. Health promotion in clean and healthy behavior programs in traditional markets. Int Res J Manage IT Soc Sci 2018;5:46-52.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Suwannapong N, Tipayamongkholgul M, Bhumiratana A, Boonshuyar C, Howteerakul N, Poolthin S. Effect of community participation on household environment to mitigate dengue transmission in Thailand. Trop Biomed 2014;31:149-58.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Muljono P. Replication of Posdaya for community empowerment programme: Case study at Situgede village, Bogor, Indonesia. Asian J Hum Soc Sci 2013;1:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Moon JY, Nam EW, Dhakal S. Empowerment for healthy cities and communities in Korea. J Urban Health 2014;91:886-93.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Leppin AL, Schaepe K, Egginton J, Dick S, Branda M, Christiansen L, et al. Integrating community-based health promotion programs and primary care: A mixed methods analysis of feasibility. BMC Health Serv Res 2018;18:72.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kouamé PK, Dongo K, Nguyen-Viet H, Zurbrügg C, Lüthi C, Hattendorf J, et al. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: Exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11:10292-309.  Back to cited text no. 14
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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