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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-8

Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among the elderly in urban and rural field practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Ludhiana

Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Paramita Sengupta
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana - 141 008, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.152845

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Background: Depression, the most common psychiatric disorder among the elderly, is not yet perceived as an important health problem in India, where few population-based studies have addressed this problem. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of depression and identify the associated risk factors in the elderly population. Materials and Methods: 3038 consenting elderly (>60 years old) rural and urban residents of both sexes from the field practice areas were interviewed and examined in a cross-sectional study. Physical impairment in the subjects was assessed with the Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI), depression by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and cognitive impairment by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed using Epi Info version-6 software. Statistical analysis included proportions, χ[2] -test, odds ratio, and its 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression was done using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of depression in the study population was 8.9%. It was significantly higher in urban residents, females, older elderly, nuclear families, in those living alone, those not working, illiterates, poor, functionally impaired, and cognitively impaired. In the multivariate analysis, unmarried/widowed status, unemployment, and illiteracy did not emerge as risk factors. Conclusions: Urban residence, female gender, higher age, nuclear family, poverty, and functional and cognitive impairment were found to be associated with depression even after controlling for other factors.

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